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instruction ceased, and attention was concentrated on oratory
as the supreme study. This phase is represented in the century
before Christ by Cicero (106-43 B-c-)> wno wrote three treatises
on oratory—De Inventione, De Oratore, and Brutus de Claris
Oratoribus—as well as three minor works, one of them a catechism
of rhetoric in the form of answers to his son's questions; and
towards the end of the First Century A.D. by Quintilian (circa
A.D. 35-95), with his manual on The Education of an Orator
(Institutio Oratorio), which is a very complete exposition of the
principles and methods of Roman education.

Cicero's point of view is that of the man of general culture
who considers educational matters as a publicist rather than as
an educator. Himself the first to attain to the highest offices
in the State by the power of persuasive speech, he thinks of the
oratorical education as an essential preparation for public life
in Rome, and he labours by precept and example to develop the
science and art of oratory. Though he is conscious of the differ-
ences in the Greek and the Roman ideals of education, he does
not regard philosophy and oratory as antagonistic disciplines*
He sees quite clearly that both are necessary in the equipment
of the educated man who is to play his part effectively in the
world. He is a good enough Roman to realize that knowledge
without the ability to present it properly is useless; but he sees at
the same time that oratory without the materials of knowledge
is ineffective. Consequently he meets the philosophers who
disparage oratory, not by denying the value of philosophy, but
by insisting that the true orator is himself a philosopher, or at
any rate is acquainted with all that is of value for life in philosophy,
with the added power to bring his philosophy to bear on practical
affairs. "When in their discussions," he says, "such topics
present themselves as require them to speak of the immortal
gods, of piety, of concord, of friendship, of the common rights
of their fellow citizens or those of all mankind, of the law
of nations, of equity, of temperance, of magnanimity, of every
kind of virtue, all the academies and schools of philosophy, I
imagine will cry out that these subjects are their concern, and
that no aspect of them concerns the orator. But when I have
given them liberty to reason on all these subjects in corners
to amuse their leisure, I shall give and assign to the orator
his part, which is to set forth powerfully and attractively